A Spatio-temporal change analysis and assessment of the urban growth over Delhi National capital territory (NCT) during the period 1977-2014
Int. J. Exp. Res. Rev., Vol. 7: 53-61 (2016)
Author: Goutam Kumar Das and Pijush Kanti Dandapath
Abstract: Rapid urbanization and urban growth, particularly in the developing worlds, is continuing to be one of the crucial issues of global change in affecting the physical dimensions of cities. This study proposes a technique to extract urban built-up land features from, Multi Spectral Scanner System (MSS-1977), Landsat Thematic Mapper (1998, 2003, and 2014) of part of Delhi NCT in India as examples. The study selected two indices, Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI), Normalized and Normalized Different Vegetation Index (NDVI) to represent three major urban land-use classes, built-up land and vegetation, respectively. The relationship between land use/land cover (LULC) change and population shift and their effects on the spatiotemporal patterns of urban area were quantitatively examined using an integrated approach of remote sensing, geographical information systems (GIS). Consequently, the seven bands of an original Landsat image were reduced into three thematic-oriented bands derived from above indices. The three new bands were then combined to compose a new image. As a result, the spectral signatures of the three urban land-use classes are more distinguishable in the new composite image than in the original seven-band image as the spectral clusters of the classes are well separated. Therefore, the technique is effective and reliable. In addition, the advantages of over NDVI and over NDBI in the urban study are also discussed in this paper. Furthermore, in combination with the detection of LULC change, an analysis of the spatially differential growth rates for developed land area and population size revealed an urban & sub-urban gradient pattern of population shifting, as evidenced by a sharp increase in developed land area within the middle sub-zones at the urban fringe and the exurban sub-zones beyond the outer traffic ring. Consequently, changes in LULC and population shifts resulted in significant variation in the spatiotemporal patterns of the urban area.
Key words: Landsat Image, NCT, NDVI, NDBI, Remote sensing, GIS
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